Polkadot network and its wild cousin Kusama are decentralized systems run by a large number of servers (i.e., nodes) that cannot be controlled by a single entity. This permissionless design offers more freedom and inclusion than centralized systems such as Google and Facebook. Whereas those centralized systems base their trustworthiness on their authority, decentralized systems draw security from rigorous economic incentive schemes. As a prominent variant of this concept, proof-of-stake networks emerged. These require nodes participating in consensus, often called validators, to put monetary resources at risk as a security deposit.
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